What is a Fuel System?
The fuel system of a vehicle stores and supplies fuel to the engine of the car. These systems have evolved significantly over the years. In the 21st century, the systems of automobiles have been made electric, and manufacturers have been producing cars that use fuel more efficiently.
There are several components of these systems, and each of these parts plays a role in the storing and supplying of fuel to the engine. It is important to maintain the different parts well since a small problem can easily result in major issues with your entire system.
Fuel System Components
The system is made up of fuel injectors, fuel tank, pump and filters. The fuel used in the car should be clean, free from water, dust and any foreign particles for the efficient performance of the car. Here is a detailed analysis of how each of the above components works.
- Fuel injectors
The injectors act as gates to release just the right amount of fuel to the engine before a car starts. Fuel injectors mix vaporised fuel with air to produce a combustible combination for the engine.
The right size of fuel injector should be used to avoid ruining the car engine. Fuel injectors can either be high or low impedance. Impedance is the amount of electrical resistance of the coil that drives the injector.
A low impedance injector will have a resistance of 1-5 ohms while a high impedance injector will have a resistance of 10-16 ohms. The feed style and configuration of a vehicle should also be considered when determining the right fuel injector.
The length and diameter of injectors should also be checked before purchase. The length ranges from 40 mm to 65 mm while the diameter of the top o-ring is either 11 mm or 14 mm. injectors can also be side feed variants hence it is important to choose injectors that are compatible with ones engine.
With the recent car models, it is possible to fit larger injectors to the cars without compromising quality, smoothness or the performance of the car. When one is unsure of which type of injectors to use on a vehicle, your car tuner can help tell the perfect fit.
- Intake valve
The valve opens and allows the mixture of fuel and air to enter the combustion chamber.
- Combustion chamber
This is the furnace of a vehicle where all the burning of fuel and air takes place.
- Fuel pumps
These feed the fuel from the tank to the fuel injection system. Fuel pumps can either be electric or mechanical.
- Fuel tank
The tank acts as a reservoir for the fuel. It is connected to a filler tube through which fuel is taken into the tank. The reservoir is closed by a cap. There are fuel lines connected to the tank that allow fuel to flow into the engine.
- Fuel swirl pots
The swirl pots are connected to engines and ensure the flow of fuel when you brake abruptly or make a sharp corner. This ensures that the fuel pump and engine do not run dry.
The components of these systems can last for years. The only part that requires regular servicing and replacement is the fuel filter.
Different Types of Fuel Systems
These systems can be categorised as either gravity feed or pressure feed.
The pressure feed system is used in most modern cars. In these systems, fuel is immediately supplied to the engine when the vehicle is started. Cars can either use high-pressure fuel pumps or low-pressure fuel pumps.
High-pressure fuel pumps are required for forced induction since they can maintain the pressure differential across fuel injectors. This way, the amount of fuel injected in a given cycle will be the same.
How can a Performance Fuel System improve your car?
Over time, the car engine is likely to deteriorate in power and performance if the system is not maintained. Fuel efficiency is the leading feature car enthusiasts look for in any modern vehicle. It is actually used as a measure of the car’s performance. Fuel efficiency is determined by many factors, and these include the type of engine, fuel and rolling resistance.
Firstly, clean fuel and air filter are important for the efficient running of your car. The combustion chamber should also be clear of any deposits that may cause knocking in a vehicle. In addition, the fuel swirl pots should be checked regularly to ensure they are in good condition.
Modern systems are digitised, meaning they are operated automatically by the Engine Control Unit (ECU). The automation of these system has enhanced vehicle performance, The result of this computerisation is higher speeds, reduced gas emissions and fuel economy.